Wanneer ‘n swart Suid-Afrikaanse leier, soos Thabo Mbeki, oor hulle verskillende stamme, lewenstyle en erfenisse in hul eie gebiede praat, is dit nie APARTHEID nie, maar wanneer Blankes, Afrikaners en Boere dit doen, is dit APARTHEID.
When a black South African leader, like Thabo Mbeki, elaborated about their tribes, lifestyles and legacy’s, into their own areas, it is not APARTHEID, but if Whites, Afrikaners and Boers do the same, it is APARTHEID.
2006 SPEECH OF THABO MBEKI: Throughout the history of our land, our leaders have been called upon to confront the many and various challenges our people have faced. For over three hundred years, our people found themselves at the mercy of a rapacious system of colonial and racial dispossession. They found themselves deprived of their birthright, their land, their livelihood, their liberty and even their labour. Traditional systems of government, commerce and diplomacy were targeted for destruction, as the colonial powers sought to vanquish, oppress and exploit the African populations of our country. The legacy of Nongqawuse is still currently felt in this region. As we know, the indigenous peoples of Southern Africa would not submit. Though defeated by unrelenting force, the spirit of resistance remained strong among our people and among our traditional leaders.
2006 – The deputy chair of the South African Institute of International Relations, Moeletsi Mbeki (brother of Thabo Mbeki) speaking recently at Witwatersrand University, made an arresting comparison between the current political situation in South Africa and the one prevailing in the period leading to the Xhosa cattle-killing in 1856-57.
The dance of the ghost
By that time, the Xhosa had been involved in nearly a half century of bloody and protracted wars with colonial settlers on the eastern frontier of their homeland. As a result of the deliberate destruction of their means of livelihood, confiscation of their cattle and the implementation of a scorched-earth policy by British colonialists, they had lost a huge portion of their territory and hundreds of thousands of their people had been displaced. As lung-sickness spread across the land in 1854, a number of prophets proclaiming an ability to bring all cattle back to life began to re-emerge.
Then, a 16-year-old girl, Nongqawuse, had a vision on the banks of the Gxarha River. She saw the departed ancestors who told her that if people would but kill all their cattle, the dead would arise from the ashes and all the whites would be swept into the sea. The message was relayed to the Xhosa nation by her uncle, Mhalakaza. Although deeply divided over what to do, the Xhosa began killing their cattle in February 1856. They destroyed all their food and did not sow crops for the future. Stored grain was thrown away. No further work was to be done. Days passed and nights fell. The resurrection of the dead Xhosa warriors never took place.
In his book The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856-7, historian JB Peires contends that by May 1857, 400,000 cattle had been slaughtered and 40,000 Xhosa had died of starvation. At least another 40,000 had left their homes in search of food. According to Dr John Fitzgerald, founder of the Native Hospital who witnessed the events, one could see thousands of those “emaciated living skeletons passing from house to house” in places such as King Williams Town. Craving for food, they subsisted on nothing “but roots and the bark of the mimosa, the smell of which appeared to issue from every part of their body.”
As the whole land was surrounded by the smell of death, Xhosa independence and self-rule had effectively ended.
Wie was NONGQAWUSE
Gedurende 1856 het die Gcaleka en al die Xhosa stamme hul vee afskuwelik vermink, vermoor en selfs hul landerye afgebrand! Totaal uitgewis: 400000 stuks vee en alle voedsel is deur hulle self verwoes. Dan staan hulle daarna bakhand omat hulle nie kos het.
Geen Afrikaner was hiervoor verantwoordelik nie, nie maar die opdrag het gekom van n 14 jarige heks, Nongqawuse – “Prophetess of Doom”. Baie van ons huidige leiers in die A N C en ook in ander politieke partye, verwys graag en gereeld na die heks in hul toesprake! Sy en haar “gees” word opgehemel. Die vraag kan tereg gevra word: Hoe op aarde word sy as ‘n tipe “god” aangehang as sy self vir hul ondergang destyds verantwoordelik was. Ons voorouers uit Europa, Nederlanders, Duiters, Franse, ensovoorts het niks daarmee te doen gehad nie.
Die Britte wat destyds aan bewind was, het haar en die res gearresteer en in die tronk gegooi vir die kriminele oortredings. Hoe op aarde vermoor mens oor n tydperk van 10 maande soveel vee sonder om n oog te knip. Dis soos n selfmoordbom! Waarvan het hulle toe daarna gelewe? Ander vee gaan steel? En hoeveel het as ggevolg van honger omgekom!
Hierdie heks Nongqawuse is in 1898 oorlede.
Nongqawuse – Prophetess of Doom
1856 was a bad year for the Xhosa nation of the Wild Coast. Their lands had been taken by the British, drought had withered their crops, and their prized cattle were dwindling under a mysterious disease. The people were facing a hard winter when hope came in the shape of a young girl called Nongqawuse, the niece of a prophet. Nongqawuse claimed that the spirits of the ancestors had spoken to her from a pool in the Gxara River. If the people would only kill all their cattle and burn their crops, a day would come when new cattle and crops would arise along with an army of the ancestors who would drive the whites into the sea. The “vision” took hold among the desperate people, who followed her orders. By February 1957 more than 200 000 cattle had been slaughtered and left to rot. All the summer crops had been burnt.
The allotted day dawned and nothing happened. The weakened population began to starve and within a few months more than a third of the entire Xhosa people had died of starvation and disease. It was easy for the British to take over the remnants of the tattered Xhosa kingdom and imprison the chiefs for their role in this ??genocide??.
Nongqawuse was taken to Robben Island for her own safety but her people were broken.
The 1856 cattle killing has receded into legend and its tragic manifestation is Nongqawuse’s pool, which can still be seen on guided tours from the resort of Qolora Mouth on the Strandloper Coast
In April or May 1856, the teenaged Nongqawuse and her friend Nombanda went to fetch water from a pool near the mouth of the Gxarha River. When she returned, Nongqawuse told her uncle and guardian Mhlakaza, a Xhosa spiritualist, that she had met the spirits of three of her ancestors.
She claimed that the spirits had told her that the Xhosa people should destroy their crops and kill their cattle, the source of their wealth as well as food. In return the spirits would sweep the British settlers into the sea. The Xhosa would be able to replenish the granaries, and fill the kraals with more beautiful and healthier cattle. During this time many Xhosa herds were plagued with “lung sickness”, possibly introduced by European cattle. Many cattle had died.
Obeying the prophecy
Mhlakaza repeated the prophecy to Paramount Chief Sarhili. Sarhili ordered his followers to obey the prophecy, causing the cattle-killing movement to spread to an unstoppable point. The cattle-killing frenzy affected not only the Gcaleka Sarhili’s clan, but the whole of the Xhosa nation. Historians estimate that the Gcaleka killed between 300,000 and 400,000 head of cattle.
Nongqawuse predicted that the ancestors’ promise would be fulfilled on February 18, 1857, when the sun would turn red. On that day the sun rose the same colour as every other day, and the prophecy was not realised. Initially, Nongqawuse’s followers blamed those who had not obeyed her instructions, but they later turned against her.
In the aftermath of the crisis, the population of British Kaffraria dropped from 105,000 to fewer than 27,000 due to the resulting famine. In at least one case, people were reportedly forced to resort to cannibalism.
Nongqawuse was arrested by the British authorities and imprisoned on Robben Island. After her release, she lived on a farm in the Alexandria district of the eastern Cape. She died in 1898.
Both Chief Sarhili and Sir George Grey, governor of the Cape at the time, have been accused of engineering the crisis through Nongqawuse. Those who blame Sarhili claim he intended to manipulate the famine-struck into attacking the British settlers. Grey’s accusers, most Xhosa people today, believe he used Nongqawuse to deliberately weaken the Xhosa people.
Some historians have looked beyond individual actors and toward the structural influences that caused a desperate and penned-in set of people to embrace a millennialist movement, as many oppressed people have in many other situations. To support this case, historians have cited the devastating epidemic of lung-sickness and the increasingly successful expansion of white power.
Today, the valley where Nongqawuse met the spirits is still called Intlambo kaNongqawuse
(Xhosa for Valley of Nongqawuse).
BACKGROUND IN THE TRIBAL HIERARCHY
A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a regional or local polity or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. This definition is used occasionally in anthropological and archaeological theory to refer to the rulers of multiple chiefdoms or the rulers of exceptionally powerful chiefdoms. Paramount chiefs were identified in Native American confederacies and regional chiefdoms, such as the Powhatan Confederacy and Piscataway Native Americans encountered by English colonists in the Chesapeake Bay area of North America.
More recently, Paramount Chief is a title created by British administrators during the 19th and 20th-century Colonial era and used in India, Africa and Asian colonies. They used it as a substitute for the word “king” to maintain that only the British monarch held that title.
Since the title “chief” was already used in terms of district and town administrators, the addition of “paramount” was made so as to distinguish between the ruling monarch and the local aristocracy.
Eastern African paramount chieftainships and titles
- Kenya: Title since 1904 of the former laibon of all the Maasai in Kenya (not in Tanzania)
- Sudan: In South Sudan, the title of the chief responsible for a payam (district) elected by the chiefs of each buma (village). The Paramount Chief works with the government-appointed Payam Director, both of whom report to a county Commissioner.
Western African paramount chieftainships and titles
- Cameroon: * Charles Atangana
- Nigeria: * Egbaland
Southern African paramount chieftainships and titles
- of each of the eight major tribes of the Tswana, all in Botswana (former Bechuanaland)
- In present Lesotho since it emerged as a polity in 1822, a British Protectorate as Basutoland since 12 March 1868 (11 August 1871 – 18 March 1884 Annexed to Cape Colony as Basutoland territory, then as a separate colony, as one of the High Commission Territories). The title changed to king at 4 October 1966 independence date from Britain.
- In Namibia
- over the Awa-Khoi or “Red Nation” (more prominent then six other ‘nations’) of the Nama (Khoi) people, a Chiefdom established before 1700.
- title Okahandja Herero among that people, also Chief Ministers of Hereoroland (two incumbents 20 July 1970 – 5 December 1980), the ‘homeland’ of the Ovaherero
- In Swaziland the term paramount chief was imposed by the British over Swazi royal objections in 1903, was never recognized by the Swazi royalty, and was changed to “king” in English upon independence in 1968. The SiSwati name for the office is Ngwenyama, a ceremonial term for “lion”.
- In South Africa
- Khosikulu of the vhaVenda; after the people’s split, (only?) of the haMphaphuli
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the Xhosa people’s following polities: amaGcaleka, amaMbalu, amaRharhabe, amaNdlambe, imiDushane kaNdlambe, imiQhayi, amaGasela, amaGwali, amaHleke, imiNdange, amaNtinde, amaGqunukhwebe
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaBhaca (until 1830 called abakwaZelemu)
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaPondo, currently ruled by Ndamase NDAMASE.
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaPondomise
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaThembu, currently ruled by BUYELEKHAYA Buyelekhaya Zwelinbanzi Dalindyebo.
- title Inkosi Enkhulu of the Nhlangwini, currently ruled by Melizwe Dlamini
>>>>>>>>>>>>> TODAY <<<<<<<<<<<
ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN HISTORY, THEIR VERSION:
According to many Xhosa people, the importance of Xhosa cultural rituals began at the time of legendary 14-year-old Nongqawuse, who was part of the Gcaleka clan. Nongqawuse while sitting by the Gxarha River not far from the Kei River Mouth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, thought she had seen ancestors from her Gcaleka clan. The ancestors commanded her to go back to the village and tell all the Xhosa people that in order for the Europeans to return to Europe, the Xhosas would have to put trust upon the guidance of their ancestors, who would then give them advice on getting their land back.
According to the Xhosa, when the Europeans arrived in the country they felt threatened and feared the Europeans would take over their land and crops. The ancestors told Nongqawuse that the Xhosa people had to first give up on any wealth that they had at the time in order to have double return in investments later on. Xhosa wealth lies in cattle and crops, so the ancestors told Nongqawuse that the people had a specific amount of time to destroy all their crops and cattle in the form of a sacrifice to honour the ancestors. All the Xhosa followed the orders of the ancestors, destroying every crop they had and killing all cattle.
The ancestors told Nongqawuse of a special day for the Europeans to return to Europe. The Xhosa people would know of this day because the sun would turn blood-red, stand still in the sky, and instead of setting in the west, it would set in the east.
The day arrived and the Xhosa people waited in anticipation to reclaim their land without fear of others taking what belongs to them. However the day was a normal day – the sun was not blood-red, it did not stand still in the sky, and it set in the west, as it does every day.
The Xhosa were devastated by this turn of events and about 20,000 people died of starvation after giving away everything they had in respect to what the ancestors had requested. Nongqawuse fled the village and sought refuge elsewhere, feeling the ancestors had deceived her.
ANIMAL CRIME IN SOUTH AFRICA
DOGS POISONED IS ONGOING FOR YEARS
2004 – Blokkies was poisoned by thieves who stole a pick-up lorry from van Rooyen. Another family dog, a 20kg mongrel, survived but spent almost a week recovering at a veterinary clinic. South Africa has some of the world’s highest rates of violent crime, fuelled in part by glaring income disparities and poverty. Official statistics show rates for some of the worst crimes such as murder are falling but remain alarmingly high. In the affluent suburbs of the main cities, residents live behind high walls, often topped with electric fences or razor wire. Homes are protected by big dogs such as rottweilers or small ones like Jack Russell terriers which make a lot of noise. This heavy protection feeds a vicious cycle as the desperate resort to increasingly brutal methods to commit their crimes.
According to the police and animal welfare organisations, the poison of choice used by South African burglars is a pesticide called aldicarb. “It is also known as ‘two-step’ because when an animal ingests it, it takes two steps and then goes down,” There is no hard data on poisonings as they often go unreported. But some attempt to gather statistics has been made by South Africa’s Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute.
Data from confirmed cases at its toxicology unit seemed to indicate that dog poisonings are decreasing, with 88 recorded in 2005 versus 130 in 2002. But in 2004, the number spiked to 117 from 101 in 2003. “It happens on a daily basis in South Africa, that I can assure you,” said police Superintendent Johan Scott, who has trained detectives in how to investigate such cases.”It (dog poisoning) was very high a couple of years ago but seems to have stabilised but at very high levels.”
There will be updates soon on this subject … keep reading … until next time